The GloFish is a patent and trademarked brand of genetically engineered fluorescent fish. They have been created from respective different species of fish : Zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) were the first GloFish available in pet stores, and recently tetra ( Gymnocorymbus ternetzi ), tiger barb ( Puntius tetrazona ), [ 1 ] Rainbow Shark ( Epalzeorhynchos frenatum), and most recently betta [ 2 ] have been added to the lineup. They are sold in many colors, trademarked as “ Starfire Red ”, “ Moonrise Pink ”, “ Sunburst Orange ”, “ Electric Green ”, “ Cosmic Blue ”, and “ galactic Purple ”, although not all species are available in all colors. Although not primitively developed for the cosmetic fish trade wind, it is one of the first genetically modified animals to become publicly available. The rights to GloFish are owned by Spectrum Brands, Inc., which purchased GloFish from Yorktown Technologies, the original developer of GloFish, in May 2017 .
history [edit ]
early development [edit ]
An ordinary Zebra Danio The master zebrafish ( or zebra danio, Danio rerio ) is a native of rivers in India and Bangladesh. It measures three centimeters long and has amber and colored blue stripes. In 1999, Dr. Zhiyuan Gong [ 3 ] and his colleagues at the National University of Singapore were working with a gene that encodes the green fluorescent protein ( GFP ), primitively extracted from a jellyfish, that naturally produced bright green fluorescence. They inserted the gene into a zebrafish embryo, allowing it to integrate into the zebrafish ‘s genome, which caused the fish to be brilliantly fluorescent under both natural blank light and ultraviolet light. Their goal was to develop a fish that could detect befoulment by selectively fluorescing in the presence of environmental toxins. The development of the constantly fluorescing fish was the beginning step in this march, and the National University of Singapore filed a patent application on this oeuvre. [ 4 ] Shortly thereafter, his team developed a course of red fluorescent zebra fish by adding a gene from a sea coral, and orange-yellow fluorescent zebra fish, by adding a random variable of the portuguese man-of-war gene. Later, a team of researchers at the National Taiwan University, headed by Professor Huai-Jen Tsai, succeeded in creating a medaka ( rice pisces ) with a fluorescent green color, which, like the zebrafish, is a model organism used in biology.
Reading: GloFish – Wikipedia
The scientists from NUS and businessmen Alan Blake and Richard Crockett from Yorktown Technologies, L.P., a ship’s company in Austin, Texas, met and a deal was signed whereby Yorktown obtained the cosmopolitan rights to market the fluorescent zebrafish, which Yorktown subsequently branded as “ GloFish ”. At around the lapp time, a divide deal was made between Taikong, the largest aquarium fish producer in Taiwan, and the taiwanese researchers to market the green medaka in Taiwan under the name TK-1. In the give of 2003, Taiwan became the beginning to authorize sales of a genetically modified organism as a positron emission tomography. One hundred thousand fish were reportedly sold in less than a month at US $ 18.60 each. The fluorescent medaka are not GloFish, as they are not marketed by Yorktown Technologies, but alternatively by Taikong Corp under a different brand identify .
presentation to the United States grocery store [edit ]
GloFish were introduced to the United States market in deep 2003 by Yorktown Technologies, after two years of research. The governmental environmental risk assessment was made by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration ( FDA ), which has legal power over all genetically modified ( GM ) animals, including fluorescent zebra pisces, since they consider the insert gene to be a drug. The FDA determined in December 2003 :
Because tropical aquarium pisces are not used for food purposes, they pose no threat to the food provision. There is no attest that these genetically engineered zebra danio fish pose any more terror to the environment than their unmodified counterparts which have farseeing been widely sold in the United States. In the absence of a open gamble to the public health, the FDA finds no reason to regulate these particular pisces. [ 5 ]
market of the pisces was met by protests from a non-governmental organization called the Center for Food Safety. They were concerned that approval of the GloFish based only on a Food and Drug Administration risk assessment would create a common law of inadequate examination of biotechnology animals in general. [ citation needed ] The group filed a lawsuit in US Federal District Court to block the sale of the GloFish. The lawsuit sought a court order stating that the sale of transgenic fish is topic to federal regulation beyond the FDA ‘s rent, and as such should not be sold without more across-the-board approvals. In the impression of Joseph Mendelson, the Center for Food Safety ‘s legal film director :
It ‘s acquit this sets a precedent for genetically engineered animals. It opens the dam to a solid host of nonfood genetically engineered organisms. That ‘s impossible to us and runs counter to things the National Academy of Sciences and other scientific review boards have said, particularly when it comes to mobile GM organisms like fish and insects. [ 6 ]
The Center for Food Safety ‘s suit was found to be without deserve and dismissed on March 30, 2005. [ citation needed ]
subsequent developments [edit ]
In addition to the bolshevik zebrafish, Yorktown Technologies released green and orange-yellow versions of the zebrafish in mid-2006. In 2011, gloomy and purple zebrafish were released. These lines of pisces incorporate genes from sea coral. [ 1 ] In 2012, Yorktown Technologies introduced a green version of a GloFish derived from a different species of pisces, the black tetra. [ 1 ] This was followed by a green interpretation of a tiger barb. In 2013, Yorktown Technologies introduced orange, pinko, and purple Tetras, which made Tetras the first GloFish to be available in pink. This was followed in 2014 by the release of red and blue Tetras. The colors are trademarked as “ Starfire Red ”, “ Moonrise Pink ”, “ Sunburst Orange ”, “ Electric Green ”, “ Cosmic Blue ”, and “ astronomic purple ”. other pisces released include the GloFish shark, available in orange, green, and purple. Though these fish are not scientifically related to sharks, they are based on the albino rainbow shark. [ 7 ] In February 2020, green GloFish bettas besides known as Globettas were released, with three different variations. These variations include female, ( young ) male, and premium ( adult ) male.
A “ galactic Purple ” Glofish shark Despite the guess of aquarium enthusiasts that the eggs of the fluorescent fish were pressure treated to make them infertile, it has been found some GloFish are indeed fertile and will reproduce in a prisoner environment. [ 8 ] however, the GloFish Fluorescent Fish License states “ Intentional reproduction and/or any sale, barter, or trade, of any offspring of GloFish fluorescent cosmetic pisces is strictly prohibited. “. [ 9 ] Sale or possession of GloFish was made illegal in California in 2003 due to a regulation that restricts genetically modified pisces. The regulation was implemented before the selling of GloFish, largely due to concern about a aggressive biotechnology pink-orange. The regulations were lifted in 2015 due to a growing body of tell and the findings of the Food and Drug Administration and the Florida Department of Agriculture and Consumer Services. GloFish are now legal in California for import and commercial sale. [ 10 ] The import, sale and possession of these fish is not permitted within the European Union. On November 9, 2006, however, the Netherlands ’ Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment ( VROM ) found 1,400 fluorescent pisces, which were sold in diverse aquarium shops. [ 11 ] In January 2009, the U.S. Food & Drug Administration formalized their recommendations for genetically engineered animals. [ 12 ] These non-binding recommendations describe the manner in which FDA regulates all GM animals, including GloFish. [ 13 ] inquiry published in 2014 assessed the environmental guard associated with GloFish. One newspaper concluded that there is little risk of invasiveness into the environment. [ 14 ] A second study concluded that there is no difference in hazard between GloFish and wild-type danios. [ 15 ]
vulnerability to predation [edit ]
GloFish are more vulnerable to predation compared to the angry type, according to a sketch published in 2011. In experiments including habitat complexity, transgenic red fluorescent zebrafish were approximately twice a vulnerable as the wild character to predation by largemouth bass ( Micropterus salmoides ) and easterly mosquitofish ( Gambusia holbrooki ), two native predators that potentially resist invasion by insert fish. [ 16 ]
evolutionary outcomes [edit ]
According to Howard et al. 2015, wild-type males had a meaning advantage over GloFish when it came to mating. [ 17 ] According to the checkmate trials that were analyzed in the study, wild-type males sired twice ampere much as the genetically modified pisces due to their more aggressive nature. [ 17 ] however, in Owen et al. 2012 by the like group, female zebrafish preferred the GloFish rather than wild-type males. [ 17 ]
References [edit ]
far read [edit ]
- “Troubled waters: fluorescent fish spark GM row” by A. Gumbel, May 4, The Independent, London, England
- “The Coronation of Mutants”, by F. Mazyoer, January 2004, Le Monde diplomatique (free in French, Esperanto, Portuguese)
- “Leuchtfische aus dem Genlabor”, by M. Robischon, August 2006 Natürlich 8: 6 – 13