“ Rappel ” redirects here. For the town in Estonia once known as Rappel, see Rapla time-lapse panorama of a rock climber abseiling off a climb Abseiling ( AB-sayl or AHP-zyle ; from german abseilen ‘to rope down ‘ ), besides known as rappelling ( RAP-pel or rə-PELL ; from French rappeler ‘to recall, to pull through ‘ ), is the control origin of a steep gradient, such as a rock expression, by moving down a lasso. When abseiling the person descending controls their own movement down the rope, in contrast to lowering off in which the r-2 attached to the person descend is paid out by their belayer. This technique is used by climbers, mountaineers, cavers, canyoners, search and rescue and rope access technicians to descend cliffs or slopes when they are besides steep and/or dangerous to descend without security. many climbers use this proficiency to protect established anchors from damage. Rope access technicians besides use this as a method acting to access difficult-to-reach areas from above for assorted industrial applications like alimony, construction, inspection and weld. [ 1 ]
Reading: Abseiling – Wikipedia
To descend safely, abseilers use a diverseness of techniques to increase the clash on the r-2 to the point where it can be controlled well. These techniques range from wrapping the rope around their body ( e.g. The Dülfersitz ) to using a custom-made device like a rack. Practitioners choose a technique based on speed, base hit, system of weights and other circumstantial concerns. In the United States, the condition “ rappel ” is used about entirely. [ 2 ] [ 3 ] In the United Kingdom, both terms are understand, [ 4 ] but “ rappel ” is strongly preferred. [ 5 ] [ 6 ] In Australia, New Zealand and Canada, the two terms are used interchangeably. Globally, the term “ rappel ” appears in books written in English more often than “ abseiling ”. [ 7 ]
history [edit ]
The origin of the term rappel in reference to the proficiency is attributed by Roger Frison-Roche [ francium ] circa 1944. [ 8 ] Frison in turn attributed the technique of abseiling to Jean Charlet-Straton [ francium ], a Chamonix guide who lived from 1840 to 1925. Charlet originally devised the technique during a fail solo undertake of Petit Dru in 1876. [ 9 ] After many attempts, some of them solo, he managed to reach the acme of the Petit Dru in 1879 in the company of two early hired Chamonix guides, Prosper Payot and Frédéric Folliguet. During that rise, Charlet mastered the technique. [ citation needed ]
- early Dülfersitz or body abseil proficiency did not require a rule or any equipment
- former double carabiner brake abseil proficiency used simple carabiner and sling as a harness
- Another carabiner based rappel technique
- The figure 8 belay device was one of the earliest specify rappel device, which much required gloves. now used by and large by military as it allows greater rush of descent
- modern abseiling proficiency used by climbers uses belay device
- Cave abseils can be long and might have to be done using ropes with varying degrees of friction, using a device such as a brake bar rack
- Abseiling from a construct in Japan
equipment [edit ]
application [edit ]
Abseiling is used in a count of applications, including :
- Climbing – for returning to the base of a climb or to a point where one can try a new route.
- Canyoning – to descend tall waterfalls and/or cliffs.
- Caving and speleology – where underground pitches need to be accessed.
- Adventure racing
- Industrial/commercial applications – to access parts of structures or buildings so as to perform maintenance, cleaning or construction, known as rope access.
- Access to wildfires.
- Confined spaces access – e.g. ballast tanks, manholes
- Rescue applications – used to access injured people on or nearby cliffs.
- Military applications – tactical heliborne insertion of troops, including special forces, into the battlefield close to the objective when proper landing zones are not available.
Rescue-style ( eared ) number eight descender and r-2
- Australian rappel — Used in the military. The abseiler descends facing downwards allowing them to see where they are going.
- Tandem or spider abseiling — Used in climbing. Involves two climbers descending on the same belay device. This is useful in rescue situations when one of the climbers is incapacitated or the descent needs to be done quickly. The set-up is similar to a regular rappelling, with the incapacitated climber suspended from the descender (and backed up on the primary climbers harness).
- Simul-rappelling or simultaneously rappelling — Used in climbing and canyoning. Two climbers descend simultaneously on the same length of rope, where one climber’s weight counterbalances the other. Generally the technique is considered less safe than the regular rappelling; however, it is useful in case of emergencies, or for rapping off opposite sides of a fin or spire where there are no anchor points. This is common in places like the Needles of South Dakota’s Black Hills.
- Counterbalance abseiling — Used in climbing. This rescue technique is typically used by a leader to reach an injured second. The leader abseils off on one strand of rope, using the incapacitated second’s weight on the other strand of the rope as a counterbalance.
- Releasable abseil — Used by guides. This safety technique allows a leader to descend with inexperienced abseilers. A rope about twice the length of the descent is anchored with a munter mule hitch. The client descends on a single isolated strand of the rope. If the client becomes stuck halfway down the guide will be able to unlock the other strand and lower the client to the ground using the hitch as a belay device. This could be useful if the client panics, or gets clothing or hair entangled in the descender.
- Classical (non-mechanical methods), e.g. the Dülfersitz — Used in emergencies. These technique are more dangerous than modern alternatives and only used when no other option is available. They involve descending without aid of mechanical devices, by wrapping the rope around the body, and were used before the advent of harnesses and hardware.
- South African classical abseil (double-roped) — Used in emergencies. This is a type of classical abseil where the user has a spare hand.
- Fireman’s Belay — Safety backup. A partner stands on the ground below holding the rope(s). If the abseiler begins to fall they will be able to pull down on the rope to arrest the descent.
safety [edit ]
Abseiling can be dangerous, and presents risks, particularly to unsupervised or inexperienced abseilers. According to german mountaineer Pit Schubert, about 25 % of climbing deaths occur during abseiling, most normally due to failing anchors. [ 13 ] An analysis of american Alpine Club accident reports shows that this is followed by inadequate safety backups and rappelling off the ends of ropes. [ 14 ]
environmental concerns [edit ]
Abseiling is prohibited or discouraged in some areas, ascribable to the electric potential for environmental damage and/or conflict with climbers heading upwards, or the danger to people on the ground. [ 15 ] [ 16 ]
See besides [edit ]
Read more : The Flash: Rebirth – Wikipedia